A new book with material presented by John Hattendorf gives us a glimpse of the British view of the battle. ( “The Battle of Rhode Island in 1778. The Official British View as Reported in The London Gazette. Middletown, RI, Stone Town Press, 2021). This slim volume offers an annotated transcript of the battle as it appeared in the British government’s official publication. Hattendorf’s explanations and copious notes are valuable as we research what happened during the battle. I will be examining the reports gradually in this blog. I appreciated Hattendorf’s introductions, but it is the primary sources – such as the letters printed in The London Gazette – that often give us insights.

A segment from a letter from Sir Henry Clinton dated New York, September 15, 1778:

“In the State Things were, when Lord Howe sailed for Rhode Island; and it was my intention to proceed up the Sound, with the Troops above mentioned, (4,000), that they might be within his Lordship’s Reach, in case we should see an Opportunity for landing them to act with Advantage; but on the 27th of last Month (August), at the Instant they were embarked, I received a Letter from Lord Howe, inclosing one from Major-General Pigot, by which I was informed, that the French Fleet had quitted Rhode Island; but that the Rebels were still in great Force.

I thought it advisable to sail immediately for the Relief of that Place, but contrary Winds detained us till the 31st; and, on our Arrival, we found that the Enemy had evacuated the Island……..I was not without Hopes, that I should have been able to effect a Landing, in such Manner as to have made the Retreat of the Rebels from Rhode Island very precarious; or that an Opening would have offered for attacking Providence with Advantage: Being thwarted in both these Views by the Retreat of the Rebels, as the Wind was fair I proceeded towards New London……”

This letter from Clinton helps me to understand how critical and precarious the “Retreat of the Rebels” was. Clinton was bringing 4,000 troops to Newport, but he had missed the French fleet. After damage in a storm, d’Estaing and the French were heading to Boston for repairs. He was alarmed that “the Rebels were still in great Force.” He proceeded on to Newport, and his hope was to 1) have the Retreat of the Rebels “very precarious” and 2) that they could attack Providence. Winds detained him.

The Americans were indeed in a precarious situation. The winds of a storm foiled the plans of the Americans and French, but the “wind coming unfavorable” made Clinton’s troops unable to foil Sullivan’s retreat.


Attacks upon Rhode Island, Augt. 1778.
Created / Published
[1778] – Collection of Library of Congress.